Prostate Cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. According to the American Cancer Society's most recent estimates that deaths from Prostate Cancer has tolled to 27,360 on a yearly basis in the country. As reflected in these numbers, prostate cancer is likely to impact the lives of a significant proportion of men that are alive today. Over the years, however, the death rate from this disease has shown a steady decline, and currently, more than 2 million men in the U.S. are still alive after being diagnosed with Prostate Cancer at some point in their lives. Although it is subject to some controversy, many experts in this field, therefore, recommend that beginning at age 40, all men should undergo screening for prostate cancer.
What is Prostate Gland? Prostate gland is a unique male organ. It’s about the size of a walnut and surrounds the tube called the urethra, located just below the bladder. It is the largest auxiliary gland from the male reproductive organ. Due to the production of testosterone hormone from the testicles after a male enters the pubic period, the prostate gland starts to grow and function.
The functions of prostate gland are as follows -
Forming the urine prostate region, controlling the urination
Transporting the content from semen vesicles and product of gland tube to the urine
Producing prostate fluid
What is Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The cancer cells may metastasize (spread) from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, or erectile dysfunction. Other symptoms can potentially develop during later stages of the disease.
Types of Prostate Cancer:
There are many types of prostate cancer and the condition is often present in many different parts of the prostate. The precursor to prostate cancer is known as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, this is also found in many different locations within the prostate. Although there are many different kinds of prostate cancer the vast majority (around 95%) are of the type known as adenocarcinoma. As this is the most wide spread from it has become synonymous with the term prostate cancer.
Adenocarcinoma: The most common site of origin of prostate cancer is in the peripheral zone (the main glandular zone of the prostate). The term adenocarcinoma can be split up to derive its meaning. Adeno means ‘pertaining to a gland’, whilst Carcinoma relates to a cancer that develops in epithelial cells. The term epithelial simply relates to cells that surround body organs or glands. Aldara and basal cell carcinoma.
Small cell carcinoma: This kind of cancer is made up of small round cells, and typically forms at nerve cells. Small cell carcinoma is very aggressive in nature and as it does not lead to an increase in prostate specific antigens it can be somewhat harder to detect than adenocarcinoma; this usually means that it has reached an advanced form upon detection.
Squamous cell carcinoma: This is a non glandular cancer, like small cell carcinoma there is no increase in prostate specific antigens when this is present. Squamous cell carcinoma is very aggressive in nature. There are other, more rare, forms of prostate cancer these include sarcomas and transitional cell carcinoma; the latter rarely develops in the prostate but derives from primary tumours present in the bladder or urethra.
Causes of Prostate Cancer:
The specific causes of Prostate Cancer remain unknown. The primary risk factors are age and family history. Prostate cancer is very uncommon in men younger than 45, but becomes more common with advancing age. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 70. However, many men never know they have prostate cancer. Men who have first-degree family members with prostate cancer appear to have doubled the risk of getting the disease compared to men without prostate cancer in the family. This risk appears to be greater for men with an affected brother than for men with an affected father.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer:
Because of the prostate's location in the body, prostate cancer is often accompanied by a number of unique symptoms. As the prostate enlarges due to cancer or another problem, the urethra is pinched tighter and tighter within the prostate. As the tube narrows, urine has a much harder time making its way through the urethra and out of the body. This results in four primary urinary symptoms:
Frequency - urinating much more often than normal
Urgency - having a sensation that you need to urinate immediately.
Nocturia - getting up to urinate multiple times during the night.
Hesitancy - difficulty starting the urine stream.
All of these symptoms are a direct result of the urethra being pinched closed by the enlarged prostate.
Other less common symptoms include:
Blood in the urine
Blood in the semen
New-onset erectile dysfunction (impotence)
Bone pain (especially in the lower back, hips, or ribs)
Loss of bladder control
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer:
Many tests can be done to determine if someone is suffering from prostate cancer, which are as follows:
DRE (Digital Rectal Exam)
Urine Flow Rate
PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)
MRI and CT Scan
Transrectal Ultrasound and Prostate Biopsy
Prostate Cancer Staging:
Prostate cancer is staged according to the pathological findings from biopsy. Staging is a method to describe how advanced a cancer is. Prostate Cancer Staging is done in the following ways:
Stage I (or A): The cancer cannot be felt on a digital rectal exam, and there is no evidence that it has spread outside the prostate. These are often found incidentally after surgery for an enlarged prostate.
Stage II (or B): The tumor is larger than a stage I and can be felt on a digital rectal exam. There is no evidence that the cancer has spread outside the prostate. These are usually found on a biopsy when a man has an elevated PSA level.
Stage III (or C): The cancer has invaded other tissues neighboring the prostate
Stage IV (or D): The cancer has spread to lymph nodes or to other organs
Prostate Cancer Surgery Procedures:
The following are the common procedure for Prostate Cancer Surgery:
Radical Prostatectomy: This procedure is the most common Prostate Cancer Surgery and is used when there is a reasonable likelihood of curing the disease. It is used in younger, healthy patients with Stage A, Stage B, and some surgeons believe in some early Stage C prostate cancers. There are two types of Radical prostatectomy: Retropubic prostatectomy where the surgical procedure is to remove the prostate through an incision (cut) in the abdominal wall. Whereas the second one is perineal prostatectomy, wherein a surgical procedure removes the prostate through an incision (cut) made in the perineum (area between the scrotum and anus).
Orchiectomy: It is also known as surgical castration or orchidectomy and entails the removal of a man’s testicles. Orchiectomy is a type or prostate cancer hormone therapy which is nonreversible. Historically, orchiectomy was the only type of hormone therapy available for the treatment of prostate cancer; hormone therapy, therefore was used only after every other treatment option has been exhausted. Orchiectomy is still used today due to both cost and side effects. Orchiectomy is less expensive than chemical castration through the LHRH agonist and LHRH antagonist. Many men also find that the side effects of orchiectomy are also fewer and less severe than those of chemical castration.
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP): A surgical procedure to remove tissue from the prostate using a resectoscope (a thin, lighted tube with a cutting tool) inserted through the urethra. This procedure is sometimes done to relieve symptoms caused by a tumor before other cancer treatment is given. Transurethral resection of the prostate may also be done in men who cannot have a radical prostatectomy because of age or illness. TURP is a type of transurethral surgery that does not involve an external incision.
Cryosurgery: Or Cryotherapy is a way of treating Prostate Cancer that uses freezing and thawing to kill the cancer cells in the prostate gland. It is commonly referred as cryotherapy and cryoablation. It is done using a number of thin needles (cryoneedles) which are inserted into the prostate gland under anaesthetic. This process kills both normal cells and cancer cells within the gland. The treatment involves getting the right balance between freezing the whole prostate gland, to kill all the cancer cells, and protecting healthy parts of the gland and surrounding tissues to avoid damaging them.
Preparing for Prostate Cancer Surgery:
Preparing for surgery can be an immensely stressful time. You can try the following tips given as under:
Ask your doctor every question you have about the surgery, its potential complications, possible alternatives to surgery, and what you should expect in the days and weeks afterward. No topic or question is too small of an issue to discuss with your doctor.
Arrange everything with work, child care, family obligations, and every other part of your life well in advance of the scheduled surgery date. This will help you relax and will allow you more rest after surgery.
Having a positive attitude before and after surgery can go a long way towards easing your nerves beforehand and helping you get back to normal life afterward.
Your surgery has a set of known possible complications and your doctor can help you understand how likely any of these are to happen. It is important to start thinking about life after surgery, especially with regard to some of the more common complications.
Talking to others who have undergone the same or similar surgery can really help alleviate unfounded fears as well as prepare you for things that you might not have expected.
Stay active and healthy until surgery. Maintain a healthy, active lifestyle is important right up until the time of surgery.
Post Operative Care after Prostate Cancer Surgery:
To make sure you heal fast, after your Prostate Cancer Surgery, it's helpful to know about some self-care you can do at home. Note, however, that these are general guidelines and may not apply to every patient. Always follow your doctor's specific instructions for care after treatment.
Incision Care: Small pieces of tape (called Steri-Strips) will remain over the incision site and may be removed 10 to 14 days after surgery. The incision should be kept clean and dry for one week after surgery.
Pain Relief: You will be given a prescription for pain relief after the procedure. Do not take aspirin or products containing aspirin for the first three days after the procedure.
Skin Care: The area may be black and blue right after the procedure. This will go away in a few days. You may feel numbness, tingling, or discomfort. This is normal.
Exercise: Consult your doctor before resuming any physical activity. Refrain yourself from lifting heavy objects for few months.
Good and Healthy Diet: The prostate surgery recovery will be faster if you follow a a good and healthy diet with fruits, fruit juices and drinking water in adequate quantities
Driving: Most men can resume driving 10 to 14 days after surgery. Ask your doctor for specific advice.
Sexual Relations: Your doctor will let you know when you can resume having sex.
The most common conditions affecting the prostate are:
Prostatitis:Prostatitis is an infection or inflammation of the prostate gland that presents as several syndromes with varying clinical features. The term prostatitis is defined as microscopic inflammation of the tissue of the prostate gland, which spans a broad range of clinical conditions. Prostatitis most commonly affects men in their 30′s and 40′s, but can also affect men of an older age. About 40% of men will suffer from some sort of prostatitis at some time in their life. Four types of prostatitis are recognized which are;
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy is nonmalignant (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland, a common occurrence in older men. It is common for the prostate gland to become enlarged as a man ages. The older a male gets the more prone he is to BPH. It’s less common in men before the age of 40. However, about 50% of men in their sixties and as much as 90% of men in their eighties and nineties will suffer from BPH symptoms.
Prostate Cancer:Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men today. Prostate cancer is a malignancy which can be life-threatening, particularly if it spreads beyond the prostate. This type of prostate disease involves a tumor forming somewhere on the prostate gland. Detecting prostate cancer early is very important. It’s a slow-growing type of cancer but can be fatal if not treated.
Symptoms of Various Prostate Conditions:
Acute Bacterial Prostatitis
Perineal prostatic pain
Obstructive urinary tract symptoms, including frequency, urgency, dysuria, nocturia, hesitancy, weak stream, and incomplete voiding
Low back pain
Low abdominal pain
Spontaneous urethral discharge
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
Intermittent obstructive urinary tract symptoms
Recurrent urinary tract infections
Systemic symptoms typically absent
Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
Pelvic pain or discomfort including perineal, suprapubic, coccygeal, rectal, urethral, and testicular/scrotal pain for more than 3 of the previous 6 months without documented urinary tract infections from uropathogens.
Obstructive urinary tract symptoms, including frequency, dysuria, and incomplete voiding
Asymptomatic Inflammatory Prostatitis - This diagnosis is defined by its lack of symptoms.
Urinating much more often than normal
Having a sensation that you need to urinate immediately
Getting up to urinate multiple times during night
Difficulty starting the urine stream
Blood in the urine
Blood in the semen
New-onset erectile dysfunction (impotence)
Bone pain (especially in the lower back, hips, or ribs)
Loss of bladder control
Types of Prostate Surgery:
Depending on your diagnosis and the severity of your prostate problem, your doctor will select the most appropriate treatment option. Treatments range from noninvasive procedures performed on an outpatient basis, without hospitalization, to standard surgeries necessitating a hospital stay.
The following procedures can be conducted on an outpatient basis and don't require general anesthesia:
PVP (photoselective vaporization of the prostate) uses a controlled laser beam to get rid of excess tissue inside the prostate.
TUIP (transurethral incision of the prostate) broadens the urethra through a few small, strategically placed incisions in the prostate.
TUNA (transurethral needle ablation) incinerates excess prostate tissue using radio waves.
TUMT (transurethral microwave thermotherapy) conducts microwaves through a catheter to destroy excess prostate tissue.
TUVP (transurethral electroevaporization of the prostate) uses electrical current to vaporize prostate tissue.
The following surgeries typically require general anesthesia and a hospital stay
TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate) accounts for 90 percent of all BPH surgeries. The surgeon inserts a slim instrument equipped with a wire loop at the end, and uses this loop to snip away excess prostate tissue.
Open prostatectomy is typically employed in extreme cases when a prostate has become grossly enlarged, has damaged the bladder, or when the patient hasn't responded to other procedures. In an open prostatectomy, the surgeon removes the prostate through a small incision made in the lower abdomen.
Types of Prostate Cancer Surgery:
Prostate cancer can be treated in many ways. The choice of treatment depends on the patient's health, age, expected life span, and personal preferences as well as on the stage and grade of cancer and the anticipated effects of treatment. Sometimes a combination of treatments is used. Following are Prostate cancer surgery types;
Radical Prostatectomy ( Open and Laparoscopy Both )
Robotic Prostatectomy ( Da Vinci Technology)
Laser Surgery for Prostate Cancer ( Holmium Laser )
HIFU ( High Intensity Frequency Ultrasound)
Green Light Laser (PVP Technology)
Brachytherapy ( Seed Guided Radiation)
Prostate Surgery Recovery:
Prostate surgery recovery time varies according to the type of procedure performed. After you have had prostate surgery, it cannot be emphasized enough that you should take it easy the first few weeks after you get home. Although you will probably feel much better when you leave the hospital, it will most likely take several months for you to heal completely. Before resuming any normal activities, be sure to talk with your doctor. Many men try to do too much at the beginning of their recovery period and then experience a setback. The prostate surgery recovery will be faster if the patient follows these vital instructions;
Do not drive or operate machinery
Do not lift any heavy objects.
Eat a well-balanced diet to prevent constipation. Ask your doctor if you can take a laxative if constipation occurs
Try not to strain when moving your bowel
Drink a lot of water (up to eight cups a day) to help flush out the bladder
Follow a well-balanced diet to avoid bowel problems. If you become constipated ask your physician if you can take a laxative.
Complications after Prostate Cancer Surgery:
Some of the common complications include:
TURP (TUR) Syndrome
Change in Penis Size
Here are some tips to lead a Healthy Life and avoid any kind of Prostate disease or conditions;
Drink lot of water daily.
Minimize or better avoid alcohol use.
Walk around for a minute after working continuously for an hour at your desk.
Make sure you empty your bladder while urinating.
Make sure you have regular bowel movements.
In addition, make sure you don't move to any extremes – at work, diet or lifestyle.
These are steps you can take to prevent prostate diseases.
Prostate Cancer Surgery in India:
India has been recognized as a new global medical destination for Prostate Cancer Surgery. Thousands of foreign patients from all across the world come to India for medical treatments and surgeries of high quality delivered as practiced in the developed nations like the US, UK and that too within their budget costs.
India has been recognized as a new global medical destination for various types of Prostate Surgery. Thousands of foreign patients from all across the world come to India for medical treatments and surgeries of high quality delivered as practiced in the developed nations like the US, UK and that too within their budget costs. The Indian surgeons performing different types of Prostate Surgery in India are highly qualified, skilled with many years of experience and are affiliated with many renowned medical organizations.
The Indian Oncologists performing different procedures of Prostate Cancer Surgery in India are highly qualified, skilled with many years of experience and are affiliated with many renowned medical organizations. The Cancer Hospitals in India are well equipped with the most advanced medical treatment and methodologies. They have the most extensive diagnostic and imaging facilities including Asia’s most advanced MRI and CT technology. These are available in the following cities at reasonable costs in the following cities:
Cost of Prostate Cancer Surgery in India:
India offers incredible cost saving in various procedures of Prostate Cancer Surgery, which goes to around 30% less than prevailing USA or UK rates. Even with travel expenses taken into account, the comprehensive medical tourism packages still provide a savings measured in the thousands of dollars for major procedures. A cost comparison of various medical treatments can give you the exact idea about the difference:
Procedure Cost (US$)
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
Transurethral Incision of the Prostate (TUIP)
Top Cancer Surgeons in our Panel:
To be qualified as a good cancer surgeon in India, a surgeon is required to have the following qualifications-;
MS in General Surgery
MCH in Cancer Surgery
DNB/FRCS/MRCS from International Colleges and Hospitals
International Fellowship and Training Programs
Publications and Paper Presentations in Reputed Scientific and Medical Journals
Wide Clinical Experience
All of our associate doctors / surgeons have trained or worked in some of the best medical institutions in United States, United Kingdom, Europe and other countries across the globe.
Our Panel of Top Cancer Surgery Hospitals in India:
India is rapidly proving its prowess in the sphere of medical health care. There is no dearth of hospitals of international standard on the Indian land. A big number of such hospitals provide cancer surgery at an affordable cost.
Best treatment with latest techniques and efficient equipments is provided in India to cure the patients at the earliest. India provides high standard of medical facilities with specialized multi specialty cancer hospitals that serve their expertise in various cancer surgeries.
The cancer hospitals in India have readily available appointments for the outpatient services all 6 days every week, and have 2 to 4 oncologists daily, these hospitals have fully trained staff comprised of chemotherapy sisters under supervision of oncologists.
These Hospitals have the best infrastructure and offer world-class facilities at a very reasonable price making them among the top A list hospitals in the world.
High tech Cancer Surgery hospitals in India provide access to team of surgical specialists & comprehensive range of imaging and laboratory services to its international patients.
Plan your Prostate Cancer Surgery in India with Tour2india4health Consultants:
Tour2India4Health Group in India is one of the largest providers of professional healthcare tourism in India. With a large number of world-renowned medical facilities, we have the resources to offer you the finest medical treatment in India, and help you in your speedy recovery. We are experts in providing the ultimate in medical tourism packages.
The surgery package prices are special tailor made for our patients keeping in mind their requirement that includes everything related to the surgery & health care, such as:
transport of the medical tourist to and from airport
the fee of the surgeon, doctors and their team
the cost of the hospitals or clinic
patient's family stay in the medical facility
food and diet provided to the patient etc
Other miscellaneous facilities included as per the needs and want of the patient are as follows;
international calling card
foreign exchange facility
tour of the city where you had your surgery or treatment etc