is a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation
of the internal kidney structures (glomeruli).
and risk factors
may be a temporary and reversible condition,
or it may get worse. Progressive glomerulonephritis
may result in destruction of the kidney
glomeruli and chronic renal failure and
end stage renal disease. The disease may
be caused by specific problems with the
body's immune system, but the precise cause
of some cases is unknown.
to the glomeruli with subsequent impaired
filtering causes blood and protein to be
lost in the urine. Because symptoms develop
gradually, the disorder may be discovered
when there is an abnormal urinalysis during
routine physical or examination for unrelated
disorders. Glomerulonephritis can cause
hypertension (high blood pressure) and may
only be discovered as a cause of high blood
pressure that is difficult to control.
may develop after survival of the acute
phase of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
In about a quarter of people with chronic
glomerulonephritis there is no prior history
of kidney disease and the disorder first
appears as chronic renal failure.
that are associated with glomerulonephritis
segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSG)
Membranoproliferative GN I
Membranoproliferative GN II
Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
that may be associated with this disease:
- Excessive urination
- High blood pressure
- Blood in the
vomit or in stools
blood pressure may be present along with
abnormal urinalysis Laboratory tests may
reveal anemia or indicate reduced kidney
functioning, including azotemia (accumulation
of nitrogenous wastes such as creatinine
and urea). Later, signs of chronic renal
failure may be apparent, including edema
(swelling), polyneuropathy, and signs of
fluid overload including abnormal heart
and lung sounds.
urinalysis may show blood, casts protein,
or some other abnormality.
Findings on kidney or abdominal ultrasound
kidney or abdominal CT scan, or IVP
A chest x-ray may show fluid overload.
A kidney biopsy may show one of the
forms of chronic glomerulonephritis
or non specific scarring of the glomeruli.
This disease may
also alter the results of the following
- Urine specific
- Urine concentration
- Uric acid, urine
- Total protein
- Urine RBC
- Urine protein
- Urine creatinine
varies depending on the cause of the disorder,
and the type and severity of symptoms. The
primary treatment goal is control of symptoms.
High blood pressure may be difficult to
control, and it is generally the most important
aspect of treatment.
antihypertensive medications may be used
to attempt to control high blood pressure.
Corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, or
other medications may be used to treat some
of the causes of chronic glomerulonephritis.
restrictions on salt, fluids, protein, and
other substances may be recommended to aid
control of hypertension or kidney failure.
or kidney transplantation may be necessary
to control symptoms of renal failure and
to sustain life.
stress of illness can often be helped by
joining support groups where members share
common experiences and problems. See kidney
disease - support group.
outcome varies depending on the cause. Some
types of glomerulonephritis may have spontaneous
remission. If nephrotic syndrome is present
and can be controlled, other symptoms may
be controlled. If nephrotic syndrome is
present and cannot be controlled, end-stage
renal disease may result.The disorder gets
worse at widely variable rates.
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Acute nephritic
- Chronic renal
- End-stage renal
- Malignant hypertension
- Fluid overload
-- congestive heart failure, pulmonary
- Chronic or recurrent
urinary tract infection
- Increased susceptibility
to other infections
your health care provider
your health care provider if disorders associated
with increased risk of glomerulonephritis
are present, or if symptoms indicating glomerulonephritis
is no specific prevention for most cases
of glomerulonephritis. Some cases may be
prevented by avoiding or limiting exposure
to organic solvents, mercury, and nonsteroidal
to "Kidney Treatment"