Overview: The Greek word 'ortho' means straight and 'pedics' comes from the Greek 'pais' meaning children. For many centuries, orthopedists have been involved in the treatment of crippled children. So over the years, the field has expanded to encompass many subspecialties and the treatment of a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders in patients of all ages. Orthopaedics is a specialty of immense breadth and variety. Orthopedists treat a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including such common injuries as fractures, torn ligaments, dislocations, sprains, tendon injuries, pulled muscles, and ruptured discs.
What is Orthopedic surgery?
Orthopaedics is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, care and treatment of patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The physicians who specialize in treating injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system are called orthopaedic surgeons or orthopedists. The orthopedists may perform surgery to restore function lost as a result of injury or disease of bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, or skin; they are involved in all aspects of health care pertaining to the musculoskeletal system.
Who needs Orthopedic surgery:
Orthopedic surgeries are instrumental in correcting problems that arise in the skeleton and its attachments, the ligaments and tendons. It may also deal with some problems of the nervous system, such as those that arise from injury of the spine. These problems can occur at birth, through injury, or as the result of aging. They may be acute, as in injury, or chronic, as in many aging-related problems.
Types of Orthopedic surgery:
According to applications for board certification from 1999 to 2003, the top 25 most common procedures (in order) performed by orthopedic surgeons are as follows:
Knee arthroscopy and meniscectomy
Shoulder arthroscopy and decompression
Carpal tunnel release
Knee arthroscopy and chondroplasty
Removal of support implant
Knee arthroscopy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Repair of femoral neck fracture
Repair of trochanteric fracture
Debridement of skin/muscle/bone/fracture
Knee arthroscopy repair of both menisci
Shoulder arthroscopy/distal clavicle excision
Repair of rotator cuff tendon
Repair fracture of radius (bone)/ulna
Repair of ankle fracture (bimalleolar type)
Shoulder arthroscopy and debridement
Lumbar spinal fusion
Repair fracture of the distal part of radius
Low back intervertebral disc surgery
Incise finger tendon sheath
Repair of ankle fracture (fibula)
Repair of femoral shaft fracture
Repair of trochanteric fracture
Top Orthopedic procedures:
Knee replacement:Knee replacement is a procedure in which the surgeon removes damaged or diseased parts of the patient's knee joint and replaces them with new artificial parts. The operation itself is called knee arthroplasty. Knee arthroplasty has two primary purposes: pain relief and improved functioning of the knee joint. Because of the importance of the knee to a person's ability to stand upright, improved joint functioning includes greater stability in the knee.
Hip replacement:Hip replacement is a procedure in which the surgeon removes damaged or diseased parts of the patient's hip joint and replaces them with new artificial parts. The operation itself is called hip arthroplasty. This type of surgery is done to replace or reconstruct a joint. The artificial joint itself is called prosthesis. Hip prostheses may be made of metal, ceramic, plastic, or various combinations of these materials. Hip arthroplasty has two primary purposes: pain relief and improved functioning of the hip joint.
Arthroplasty: Arthroplasty is surgery performed to relieve pain and restore range of motion by realigning or reconstructing a dysfunctional joint. The goal of arthroplasty is to restore the function of a stiffened synovial joint and relieve pain. As a surgical procedure, it is usually performed when medical treatment has not improved function in the affected joint. There are two types of arthroplastic surgery: joint resection and interpositional reconstruction. Joint resection involves removing a portion of the bone from a stiffened joint, increasing the space between the bone and the socket to improve the range of motion. Scar tissue eventually fills the gap, narrowing joint space again. Pain is relieved and motion is restored, but the joint is less stable.
Shoulder joint replacement: Shoulder joint replacement surgery is performed to replace a shoulder joint with artificial components (prostheses) when the joint is severely damaged by such degenerative joint diseases as arthritis, or in complex cases of upper arm bone fracture. The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint that allows the arms to be raised, twisted, bent, and moved forward, to the side and backward. The head of the upper arm bone (humerus) is the ball, and a circular cavity (glenoid) in the shoulder blade (scapula) is the socket. A soft-tissue rim (labrum) surrounds and deepens the socket. The head of the humerus is also covered with a smooth, tough tissue (articular cartilage); and the joint, also called the acromioclavicular (AC) joint, has a thin inner lining (synovium) that facilitates movement while surrounding muscles and tendons provide stability and support.
Common Orthopedic Conditions:
Conditions of the Knee:
Tear of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Blown Out Knee)
Arthritis of the Knee
Meniscal Cartilage Tear
Various Runners' Conditions Affecting the Knee
Limited Cartilage Defects of the Knee
Conditions of the Shoulder
Rotator Cuff Tear
Conditions of the Hip
Bursitis of the hip
Arthritis of the Hip
Others conditions include:
Elbow Pain and Problems
Foot Pain and Problems
Hand Pain and Problems
Low Back Pain
Neck Pain and Problems
Paget ’s disease of the Bone
Preparing for the surgery:
A patient is usually referred to an orthopedic surgeon by a primary care physician, emergency room physician, or other doctor. Prior to any surgery, candidates undergo extensive testing to determine appropriate corrective procedures. Tests may include x rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), myelograms, diagnostic arthroplasty, and blood tests. The orthopedist will determine the history of the disorder and any treatments that were previously tried. A period of rest to the injured part may be recommended before surgery is undertaken. Surgical candidates undergo standard blood and urine tests before surgery and, for major procedures, may be given an electrocardiogram or other diagnostic tests prior to the operation. Individuals may choose to donate some of their own blood to be held in reserve for their use in major surgery such as knee replacement , during which heavy bleeding is common.
As with any surgery, there is always a risk of excessive bleeding, infection, and allergic reaction to anesthesia. Risks specifically associated with orthopedic surgery include inflammation at the site where foreign materials (pins, prostheses, or wires) are introduced into the body, infection as the result of surgery, and damage to nerves or to the spinal cord.
Thousands of people have successful orthopedic surgery each year to recover from injuries or to restore lost function. The degree of success in individual recoveries depends on an individual's age and general health, the medical problem being treated, and a person's willingness to comply with rehabilitative therapy after the surgery. Abnormal results from orthopedic surgery include persistent pain, swelling, redness, drainage or bleeding in the surgical area, surgical wound infection resulting in slow healing, and incomplete restoration of pre-surgical function.
Advance Orthopedic procedures: Torn labrum repair surgery: The procedure for torn labrum repair surgery is very complex and it requires experienced surgeons to perform such kind of surgery. The labrum is a type of cartilage found in the shoulder joint. The shoulder is a ball and socket joint where the arm meets the body. Tears of the labrum near the biceps tendon attachment (SLAP lesions) may be just trimmed or may need to be reattached to the top of the socket. The best way to do this is with arthroscopic surgery since this area is difficult to reach with an open operation through a large incision. Using the arthroscope and small incisions for other instruments, the labrum can be re-attached to the rim of the socket using either sutures or tacks. Generally patients get recovered very fast and they are discharged the same day.
Podiatry Surgery: is designed to ensure continued functionality of the foot and ankle areas. Patients, who complain of joint and ligament problems, as well as those with congenital deformities, are offered a plethora of surgical solutions that fix bones, muscles, and joints. Certain podiatric surgeons specialize in minimally invasive surgery, while others perform full reconstructions.
Why Orthopedic surgery in India: Of late, India has become a favorable destination for various Orthopedic surgeries. The reason behind this paradigm shift is because of its infrastructure and technology which is virtually equivalent to those in USA, UK and Europe. India has some of the best hospitals and treatment centers in the world and some truly superior facilities, with almost zero patients wait list. The hospitals and orthopedic medical centers have state of the art facilities, equipped with state of art infrastructure and latest technology. Hospitals adhere to international standards of clinical care, safe environment, medication safety, respect for rights and privacy, international infection control standards.
The panel of Indian orthopaedic surgeons are highly qualified, having the experience of thousands of Joint replacement surgeries - both primary and revision surgeries of the hip, knee, shoulder as well as Uni-Compartmental Knee replacement. They are trained and worked in some of the best centres in England, USA & Europe. They have a good success rate and are world renowned medical professionals known to cater service both India and abroad.
Orthopedic Surgery in India is available at various hospitals in the following cities with latest amenities and state-of-art-facilities.
Significant cost differences exist in India when it comes to orthopedic surgery. India is not only cheaper but the waiting time is almost nil. This is due to the outburst of the private sector which is comprised of hospitals and clinics with the latest technology and best practitioners.
Spine surgery with implants
Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:
Located in South Asia, bordered by Pakistan, Nepal, China and Bangladesh, India is South Asia's largest, sovereign, democratic republic. India has an edge over other countries when it comes to offering comprehensive, cost-effective and timely medical care: it also offers an exotic, adventure-filled or cultural -if you wish array of destinations to discover and revel in for the travelers. Indian cities like Mumbai, Hyderabad, Goa, Bangalore, Nagpur, Kerala, Delhi, Pune, Jaipur, Chennai, Gurgaon, and Chandigarh offers best medical tourism service.
Mumbai - Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. This port city (India's largest and busiest) accounts for a major share of the government's revenue, and has one of the world's largest harbour. There are many things to love about Mumbai. One is simply the geographical names, like The Queen's Necklace and Elephanta Island, all with roots in the British Empire.
Hyderabad - Also known as City of Nizams. The city of Hyderabad has its own individual character, which is evident in the beautiful, ancient palaces and the equally modern, and state-of-the-art offices and buildings. Medical tourism at hospitals in Hyderabad combines care for your health with international tourism. The primary reason
behind its surging popularity is better healthcare services at an affordable budget.
Goa - Popularly known as the ‘Rome of the East’, Goa boost of natural, magnificent churches and exquisite works of man. Plunge into the clear blue water of the large pool, or soak in the blissful sunshine on the picturesque island. Goa is an interesting location for getting your health propped up and getting those long postponed surgeries done. You have modern facilities, short waiting times and very affordable prices for procedures, hospital services and medicines.
Bangalore - The progressive and modern city of Bangalore is the state capital, being located within India's Karnataka state. Bangalore is often referred to as the country 'Garden City', due to its high concentration of parks and green spaces. Bangalore has few of the world’s best doctors and medical practitioners, who have been trained by the rigorous Indian medical education system as well as in countries like UK and USA.
Nagpur - Nagpur City has many distinctions. It is also the second greenest in India and is located at the very center of the heartland, almost equidistant from Kolkata, Chennai and New Delhi and Mumbai. The present city was founded in the early 18th century by Bhakt Buland, a Gond prince of the kingdom of Deogad in the Chhindwara district. The Nagpur District has a varied culture, as well as being in the central part of India, the market in Nagpur is flooded with products from all over India. Nagpur has few of the world’s best doctors and medical practitioners, who have been trained in countries like UK and USA.
Kerala - Natural beauty, clean air and primordial greenery amidst the vast expanse of water and sky, typifies the state of Kerala – better known as God's own country. Kerala is famous for its alternative medical therapies such as Ayurveda, which help to rejuvenate and revitalize the body. The region is also home to India’s only virgin tropical rain forest – the Silent Valley National Park, supporting an overwhelming range of life forms, many of which are highly endangered, and endemic to this part of the planet.
Delhi - "Welcome to The Capital City of India - New Delhi" Delhi is famous as Capital city of India is located in North India. Delhi is truly a symbol of the old and the new; a blend of ancient well preserved monuments and temples along with jam-packed burger joints and up market shopping malls. Delhi has state of the art Hospitals and the best qualified doctors.
Pune - Once referred to as the Oxford of the east, Punecontinues to be a stronghold for academics and culture. An array of factors like availability of efficient and experienced doctors, comparatively low treatment costs, hospital facilities of international standards and many more have made Pune one of the top destinations for medical tourism.
Jaipur - Jaipur is one of the most popular destinations on a tourist's itinerary. The magnificent forts, beautiful havelis and colourful bazaars make Jaipur a popular tourist destination among tourists. Jaipur has pioneered health and medical tourism in India.
Chennai - Chennai is one of the most developed urban centers in the Indian subcontinent. The city forms the capital of Tamil Nadu state and is the fourth largest metropolitan city in India. They have some of the very best hospitals and treatment centers in the world. Each hospital is equipped with state of the art facilities. The technology brought into practice is the very latest, including robotic surgery.
Gurgaon - Located in the National Capital Region, Gurgaon is one of the most rapidly growing cities in Greater Delhi. In the last few years Gurgaon has boomed as the hub of IT and other new-age businesses. Gurgoan is the latest destination for Medical Tourism in India as it is the latest modern upcoming city near Delhi.
Chandigarh - Located near the foothills of Shivalik range of the Himalayas, Chandigarh is one of the most beautiful and happening cities of India. Chandigarh has great potential for Medical tourism as the unpolluted and excellent environs give many opportunities to patients to recover from their illness.
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