for cancerous and noncancerous tumors:
uterus, or womb, is part of the female
reproductive system. Often described
as pear-shaped, it is located in the
lower abdomen. The uterus lies in
close proximity to the ovaries, where
are stored. During ovulation the eggs
travel down the fallopian tubes to
the uterus. Fertilized eggs implant
and grow in the uterus.
Fibroids: Non-Cancerous Tumors of the Uterus
fibroid tumors are the most common type
of neoplasm in the female reproductive system
(neoplasm is simply another word for tumor).
This particular type of neoplasm develops
from the smooth muscle tissues of the womb.
They are extremely common in women: 20 to
25 percent of women develop uterine fibroid
tumors. Most fibroids never cause symptoms
and do not require removal. Other names
for fibroids are leiomyomas, leiomyomata,
fibromyomas, and myomas.
a Fibroid Cancerous?
fibroid tumors are benign growths, and are
only very rarely malignant. Less than one
percent develop into uterine cancer. These
very rare occurrences generally occur in
women during menopause. The vast majority
of leiomyomas are not life threatening,
although some can cause health complications.
of Uterine Fibroid Tumors
uterine fibroid develops from a single cell
in the uterus muscle. The neoplasm may be
less than a quarter of an inch long; many
measure up to six inches; and a rare few
grow as large as ten inches in diameter.
exact cause of uterine fibroids is unknown,
but hormones are believed to play an important
role. The tumors tend to develop faster
during the reproductive years, when estrogen
and other female hormones are at their highest
levels. After menopause, leiomyomas often
diminish in size.
leiomyomas do not interfere with pregnancy,
but size and location can cause complications.
The extra blood flow to the womb during
pregnancy can stimulate tumor growth. Occasionally,
caesarean sections may be required to counteract
complications. Possible complications include
miscarriage, premature contractions, and
marrow transplant for cancer
and marrow transplants (BMT) are used to
treat conditions such as acute and chronic
leukemia, lymphomas and some solid tumors
such as breast cancer. During a BMT, healthy
stems cells (the source of all blood cells)
are injected into the recipient, where they
can develop into the various cell types.
If the stems cells are taken from bone marrow,
the procedure is a bone marrow transplant.
If they are taken from blood, it is called
peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Seek help from: hematologists or oncologists.
in the small or large intestines can treat
bleeding, injury, disease, obstructions
or cancer. Doctors can manipulate, repair,
remove and re-attach to treat diseases or
injuries. Seek help from: general surgeons,
colon and rectal surgeons or gastroenterologists.
Brain surgery or other nerve procedures
surgery is a complex procedure that may
be required to treat a blood clot, tumor,
abscess, head injury, stroke, to stop bleeding,
relieve pressure on the brain or repair
damaged brain tissue. Seek help from: neurosurgeons,
neurologists or physical medicine and rehabilitation
Ears, nose, throat surgery, including major
to the head or neck region can correct birth
defects or treat injury, infection, tumors
and disease. It can also improve function
or looks. Seek help from: ear, nose and
throat doctors (otolaryngologists), plastic
surgeons, general surgeons, or pediatric
Lung or chest surgery
on the lung and the structures around it
can treat infection, injury or, most commonly,
lung cancer. Operations may remove part
of a lobe, an entire lobe, or may involve
surgery on the airways or the cavity surrounding
the lung. New techniques using a small instrument
with a camera are making it easier on patients.
Seek help from: thoracic surgeons
Mastectomy (surgical removal of part or
the entire breast) or similar procedures
is the surgery to remove an entire breast.
A lumpectomy involves removing only part
of the breast. Both are usually performed
to treat breast cancer and other serious
breast disease such as abscesses. Seek help
from: general surgeons, plastic surgeons
Prostate resection (surgical removal of
the prostate or prostatectomy)
is the surgical removal of the prostate
gland through an incision made in the abdomen,
usually to treat prostate cancer. Seek help
Skin Problems requiring Surgery or Grafting
skin problems leave people with large areas
of the body surface exposed or covered with
blisters, scales or scabs. Skin infections
or surgical removal of skin cancers may
also leave areas of the body exposed. Wound
surgery (debridement) to remove diseased
tissue followed by skin grafts may be the
best option to help in healing. Seek help
from: dermatologists, plastic surgeons or
Splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen)
and other similar surgeries
spleen helps the body fight bacterial infections
and makes and stores important blood cells.
Removing the spleen (splenectomy) may be
required if there is injury to the organ,
if blood flow to the spleen is interrupted
by blood clots, to study the spread of cancer
as in Hodgkin's lymphoma or if the spleen
becomes hyperactive as in idiopathic thrombocytopenia
purpura (ITP), hemolytic anemia or leukemia.
Seek help from: general surgeons.
Stomach or esophagus (food pipe) surgery
on the stomach, esophagus or the duodenum
(the first part of the intestines) can help
stop internal bleeding or treat an ulcer,
injury, disease or cancer. Doctors may need
to repair, remove or re-attach these organs.
Seek help from: general surgeons or gastroenterologists.
Surgery for cancer of cervix, uterus or
ovary or other similar surgeries
for cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and
other female reproductive cancers often
involves removing the involved organ and
sometimes the surrounding tissue and lymph
nodes. For some cancers, less invasive procedures
can be done to treat the cancer without
removing the entire organ. Seek help from:
OB/GYNs or gynecologic oncologists.
Surgery for kidney or bladder cancer
can affect any part of the urinary tract.
Surgery is usually the best chance for a
cure. An operation may repair or remove
part of the kidney, bladder or urinary tract.
It may help diagnose or treat the cancer
or just relieve the symptoms if the cancer
is too far advanced. Seek help from: urologists
Surgery on the bones and joints of hip,
leg or ankle
on the hip, knee, thigh, leg or foot can
treat injuries, fractures, tumor, arthritis,
persistent infection or problems medicines
can't cure. Doctors can remove or repair
diseased areas or use fix fractures by inserting
steel screws, steel plates and rods. Seek
help from: orthopedic surgeons.
Surgery on the eye due to injury, tumor
or birth defects
eye problems require surgery that is done
in the hospital. These include cancer in
the eye, other growths or tumors, deep infections
or injuries that cause bleeding into the
eye. Seek help from: ophthalmologists.
Surgery on the male reproductive organs
surgery might repair a narrowing of the
urethra (what takes urine outside the body),
a fistula (abnormal opening in the urethra),
an injury or a birth defect. The most common
penis operation is circumcision to remove
the foreskin. Surgery on the testes usually
treats cancer, infection or developmental
defects. Procedures on the scrotum often
involve removing excessive fluid in the
sac (hydrocele) or other problems related
to infection, injury or cancer. Seek help
Surgery on the pancreas, liver or bile ducts
or pancreas surgery may involve repairing
or removing part or all of the diseased
or injured organs. Sometimes, blockage or
increased pressure in the arteries around
the pancreas leads to liver failure, and
shunt procedures are performed to relieve
this obstruction. Seek help from: specially
trained surgeons or general surgeons.
Thyroid, pituitary or adrenal surgery or
other similar surgeries
pituitary and adrenals are glands that produce
hormones that help regulate the body's metabolism.
Surgery may be required on them to remove
cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, to remove
nodules that produce too much hormone or
for enlarged glands that press against adjacent
structures. Seek help from: endocrinologists,
general surgeons, neurosurgeons or ear,
nose and throat doctors (otolaryngologists).
Wound surgery (debridement) with skin grafting
surgery (debridement) removes dead or foreign
tissue from a wound to expose healthy tissue
and hasten healing. Some cases require skin
grafts to prevent further infection and
to stimulate healing. Seek help from: plastic
surgeons or general surgeons.
to "Paediatric Surgery"