Top Hospitals in India[X]
Apollo Hospital  India Apollo Hospital
Fortis Hospital DELHI India Fortis Hospital
Artemis Hospital India Artemis Hospital
Max Hospital India Max Hospital
Asia Columbia Group of Hospitals India Asia Columbia Group of Hospitals
Nova Hospital India Nova Hospital
Medanta Hospital India Medanta Hospital
Asian Heart Institute India Asian Heart Institute
Wockhardt Hospital India Wockhardt Hospital
Hiranandani Hospital Mumbai India Hiranandani Hospital
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital India Sir Ganga Ram Hospital
Jaslok Hospital India Jaslok Hospital
Lilavati Hospital India Lilavati Hospital
Kokilaben Hospital India Kokilaben Hospital
Narayana Hospital  India Narayana Hrudayalaya
Global Hospitals India Global Hospitals
Jupiter Hospital Thane India Jupiter Hospital
Free Consultation [X]
Name :
X
Email :
XInvalid Format..
XInvalid Format..
Age : XInvalid
Telephone(Mobile):
X
Country :
Please select Your Country.Please select Your Country.
Your Message:
X
  
Surgery in India | Best Surgery in India Surgery in India | Best Surgery in India
Home Medical Tourism The Indian Choice Why tour2india4health Testimonials PressReleases Enquiry Form Contact
Low Cost Knee Replacement Surgery in India
           
Orthopaedics
Cardiothoracic
Oncology
Nephrology (kidney)
Exotic Spas
 
Cosmetic Surgery
Opthalmology
Neurosurgery
Urosurgery
Ayurveda
 
Dentistry
Gastro-Enterology
Paediatric Surgery
Dermatology
Health Checkups
Laser Skin & Hair Treatment
General and Endoscopy Surgery
Bariatric/Obesity Surgery
IVF (Fertility Treatment)
Varicose Veins Treatment
 
 
 

Urology Surgeons, Doctors and Hospitals in India

Access the Best Urologists in the World and Top Urology Hospitals in India for your Urology Surgery with Tour2India4Health Group

Tour2India4Health Group in India is one of the largest providers of professional healthcare value provider in India. With a large number of world-renowned medical facilities, we have the resources to offer you the finest medical treatment in India, and help you in your speedy recovery. We are experts in providing the ultimate in medical tourism packages.

We provided affordable Urology surgery in India at Best Urology Hospitals in India under best surgeon at much discounted price when compared to other healthcare providers in India and abroad. Our discounted package for overseas uninsured, self insured and underinsured individuals helps them to save upto 30% to 40% on their surgery cost.

The surgery package prices are special tailor made for our patients keeping in mind their requirement that includes everything related to the surgery & health care, such as:

  • Transport of the medical tourist to and from airport

  • The fee of the surgeon, doctors and their team

  • The cost of the hospitals or clinic

  • Medicines

  • Patient's family stay in the medical facility

  • Nursing care

  • Food and diet provided to the patient, etc,

Other miscellaneous facilities included as per the needs and want of the patient are as follows;

  • Hotel stay

  • Language translator

  • International calling card

  • Foreign exchange facility

  • Tour of the city where you had your surgery or treatment, etc.

   
 

Mr. Jonathan, USA
Complex Urology Surgery in India

 

Hello, I am Jonathan from USA and I got my Urology Surgery in India through Tour2India4Health Consultants. I had some urological problems and I was searching for treatment options in my native country, but the cost for the surgery was beyond my budget. A friend of mine suggested me about Tour2India4Health Consultants in India through which he got assistance during his urology surgery in India. I contacted this group and they responded quickly to all my queries and doubts. After having a telephonic conversation with the surgeon, I decided to get my surgery done through them. The surgeon was a kind hearted person who cleared all my doubts before the surgery. The nursing staff was amazing and very caring. I really appreciate their dedicated efforts in arranging my surgery in India. I am thankful to your entire team for their wonderful hospitality, excellent medical services and care I received during my medical trip to India.

 

Urology Surgery:

Urology Surgeons and Hospitals in IndiaUrology Surgery is the integration of surgical activities for the pelvis—the colon, urogenital, and gynecological organs—primarily for the treatment of obstructions, dysfunction, malignancies, and inflammatory diseases.

Urology is the study of the causes and treatment of diseases of the urinary system. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urologic disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis) When medication and other non-surgical treatments are unavailable or cannot relieve symptoms, surgery is the recommended treatment for many conditions that affect the male reproductive organs and urinary tract organs. Fortunately, less invasive surgical options are available to many people facing urologic surgery. The most common is laparoscopy, which uses small incisions.


Best Urology Surgeons in India

  • A Urology Surgeon or Urologist is a physician who has been trained to treat disorders of the male and female urinary tract (bladder, ureter, kidney, and urethra) and the male reproductive system.

  • If you are suffering from a continence problem, Urology specialists in India offer a variety of treatments that can help restore hope and improve your quality of life. The treatment options include behavior modification, biofeedback, bladder retraining, medicines, surgical repairs and sacral nerve stimulation.

  • Best urology surgeons of India offer a wide range of leading-edge treatment options – both surgical and nonsurgical – for medical conditions of the urogenital tract, including the prostate and testicles in males and the kidneys and bladder in both males and females

    Indian physicians strive to deliver the very highest quality of care in a comfortable and supportive office environment.

  • Many of the procedures performed by Top 10 urologists in India do not require “open” surgical techniques. In fact, due to the development of equipment like the uretescope, which can visualize the urinary tract, diagnosis and treatment is accomplished without ever requiring a scalpel or sewing a stitch.

  • Indian physicians are known leaders in the field of Urology Surgery in the world. In the highly specialized area of reconstructive surgery, the best urologists in the world perform such procedures as creation of a replacement bladder in patients with bladder cancer, reconstruction of the urethra, and repair and reconstruction of the genitals.

  • Urology specialists of India are also widely known for their capability in early detection of cancer using sophisticated screening methods for bladder and prostate cancer as well as advanced biopsy techniques for these two malignancies.

  • Medical Qualifications of the Urology Surgeons in India are as follows;

    • MS in General Surgery

    • MCH in Urology Surgery

    • DNB/FRCS/MRCS from International Colleges and Hospitals

    • International Fellowship and Training Programs

    • Publications and Paper Presentations in Reputed Scientific and Medical Journals

    • Wide Clinical Experience


List of Top Urology Surgeons of India

  • Dr Mahendra Jain

  • Dr. Raja

  • Dr Roy Chowdhary

  • Dr. Sanjay Pandey

  • Dr. Anant Kumar,

  • Dr. Dilip Raja

  • Dr Rupin S Shah

  • Dr. Anant Kumar,

  • Dr Manu Gupta,

  • Dr Vipin Tyagi

  • Dr. Pawan Kesarwani

  • V K Mehta

  • Dr. Gagan Gautam

  • Dr Sudhir Khanna

  • Dr. Rajiv Goel

  • Dr Mrinal Pahwa

  • Dr. Parag Gupta

  • Dr Shailendra Kumar Goel

  • Dr Manoj Talwar

  • Dr Rajinder Yadav

  • Dr. Ajay Sharma

  • Dr N Subramanian

  • Rajeev sood

  • Dr. Rajesh Taneja

  • Dr Ashish Sabharwal

  • Dr Anil Agarwal

  • Gupta Dr Anil Kumar

  • Dr S K Rawat

  • Dr Vikas Jain

  • Dr Anshuman Agarwal

  • Dr Mahendra Jain

  • Ninan Thomas Panicker Dr

  • Dr S P Keshavamurthy

  • Dr Dilip Dhanpal

  • Dr Ali Poonawala

  • Dr K Rao

  • Sridhar Dr K N

  • Dr B V Venkatesh

  • Dr T S Vasan

  • Nagasubramanyam Dr S

  • Dr Geetha Basavaraj

  • Dr Kamath Ananth Janardhan

Consult the Top Urology Surgeon of India?     Click Here 

Check out Best Urology Surgeons in India

  • Dr.Ananthakrishnan Sivaraman

  • Dr N Anandan

  • Dr.Narasimhan Ragavan

  • Dr.Joseph .V. Thachil

  • Dr R Govindarajan

  • DEEPAK LAMECH

  • Dr.A.M Jayaraman

  • Dr. A.Natarajan

  • Dr. Raghavan Sridhar

  • Dr. Deepak

  • Dr Ravi Babu Sivaraj

  • Muthulatha N (Dr)

  • Dr.Srinivasan

  • Dr Meyyappan R M

  • Dr Anandan

  • Dr. Anup Ramani

  • Dr. Shailesh Raina

  • Dr. Dilip Raja

  • Dr. Deepak M Gupte

  • Dr. Sharad R Shah

  • Dr Pattnaiks

  • Dr Rupin S Shah

  • Dr Pradeep P Rao

  • Dr. Raja

  • Dr. Mukund Thatte

  • Dr. Ozas Urology Centre

  • Dr. Sanjay Pandey

  • Dr. Prakash Chandra Shetty

  • Dr. Hemant R Pathak

  • Dr. Praful Kulkarni

  • Dr. P.J Chibber

  • Dr. Jaishree Sharad

  • Dr. Sumit Mehta

  • Dr. Ajit M Vaze

  • Dr. Anand Utture

  • Dr. Hemant Tongaonkar

  • Dr. Tushar Rege

  • Dr. S. S. Nabar

  • Dr Mahajan Urology Clinic

  • Dr.Rajesh Bajpai

  • Dr. Amit Khandkar

  • Dr. V. K. Subramaniam

  • Dr. Shulmit Vaidya

Consult the Best Urology Surgeon in India    Click Here 

Top Urology Hospitals in India

  • Best urology hospitals of India offer a comprehensive range of urology surgery and care for children, adults and geriatrics providing outpatient clinic consultation, evaluation and diagnostics.

  • The Urology department at various hospitals in India are dedicated to provide state of the art medical and surgical care with state of the art facilities in radiology (x-rays, ultrasound and scans), laboratory, surgery room and nursing care. Almost all evaluation processes are performed on a 'one-day' and 'one-stop' basis to cater to the busy international clients.

  • A comprehensive approach to patient care is adapted by these hospitals, offering various urology services to diagnose and treat kidney stone disease, Urology cancers, incontinence, infertility, impotence, female and paediatric urology, prostatic surgery and other urinary difficulties.

  • India has state of the art Urology Hospitals and the best qualified doctors. With the best infrastructure, the best possible Medical facilities, accompanied with the most competitive prices, you can get the treatment done in India at the lowest charges.

  • Many Urology Hospitals in India are honored of being amongst the top Urology Surgery centers in the world. Their main goal has always been to evaluate and treat patients by the most effective methods and prescribe what is best for specific patients.

  • The best urology hospitals of India have formed professional and specialized team that work together to treat their international patients providing the best they deserve. The top urology hospitals Indiateam includes;

  • Doctors

  • Urologists

  • Urology Surgeons

  • Technical Experts

  • Medical Experts

  • Health Officials

  • Medical Professors

  • Medical Students


List of Top Urology Surgery Hospitals of India

  • SSKM Hospital

  • Vedanayagam Hospital

  • Centre for Robotic Surgery - For Urology & Nephrology Treatments

  • RG Stone Urology & Laparoscopy Hospital

  • Fortis Hospital

  • RG Stone Urology & Laparoscopy Hospital

  • Ramayya Pramila Urology Hospital

  • Devasya Kidney & Multi Speciality Hospital

  • Columbia Asia Referral Hospital

  • Center of Excellence for Minimal Access Surgery Training (CEMAST)

  • Manipal Northside Hospital

  • Anandas Uro Andrology Clinic

  • Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute

  • KMC Hospital

  • Fortis Malar Hospital

  • Sir Ganga Ram Hospital

  • Urologist South Delhi

  • Urology Center-Clinic,Surgery Hospital Delhi

  • RG Stone Urology & Laparoscopy Hospital

  • SOUTH DELHI UROLOGY CLINIC

  • World Laparoscopy Hospital

  • Sir Ganga Ram Hospital

  • Delhi Urological Centre

  • The Stone Clinic

  • Pushpawati Singhania Research Institute

  • Stone & Prostate Clinic

  • Apollo Spectra Hospitals

  • Kidney Care & Stone Urology Clinic

  • Ethicon Institute Of Surgical Education

  • Safdarjung Hospital

  • Sanjeevni Clinic

  • Raju Institute Of Nephro Urology

  • Punya Hospital

  • St. Marthas College Of Nursing

  • Apollo Spectra Hospitals

  • Genesis Hospital

  • Vikram Hospital

  • Uro Care Clinic

  • Columbia Asia Referral Hospital

  • Khandelwal Hospital and Urology Centre

Consult the Top Urology Surgery Hospitals of India?    Click Here 


Check Out Best Urology Surgery Hospitals in India

  • The Bangalore Kidney Stone Hospital

  • Anand Clinic

  • Chaithanya Urology Centre

  • Alfa Clinic

  • Meenakshi Urology Clinic And Surgical Centre

  • Institute of Nephro Urology

  • Ratkal Speciality Hospitals

  • Shree Srinivasa Uro Care

  • Bangalore International Kidney & Prostate Center

  • NU Hospitals

  • Columbia Asia Hospital - Hebbal

  • Srushti Fertility Centre & Women's Hospital - Ramapuram

  • Vaitheswara Urology Clinic

  • St.Isabel's Hospital

  • Ayesha Hospital

  • City Tower Hospitals

  • The Guest Hospital

  • Sankara Kidney Hospital

  • Hande Hospital

  • Shreyas Kidney Stone & Urology Centre

  • Tn Urological Research Centre

  • Urologycare

  • Nimalan Kidney Care Clinic

  • CTH Urology Centre

  • Fortis Malar Hospital

  • Anandas Uro Andrology Clinic

  • RG Stone Urology & Laparoscopy Hospital

  • Urology Specialist India

  • Urology Clinic

  • krishsairam

  • Urology Diagnostic Centre

  • Bombay Hospital and Medical Research Centre

  • Medico Surgical Clinic & Hospital

  • Sanket Hospital

  • P.D. Hinduja Hospital

  • Suprabha Surgicare

  • RG Stone Urology Centre

  • Medecure

  • Bapat Urology Centre

  • RG Stone Urology & Laparoscopy Hospital

Consult the Best Urology Surgery Hospital in India:    Click Here 

Cities where top and world renowned Urology Hospitals and Centers are situated are; 



Medical Tourism in India

  • Skyrocketing health care expenses has become an issue of concern world over and people find themselves constrained to make compromises to their personal health.MEDICAL TOURISM INDIA - MEDICAL TREATMENT INDIA is the answer!

  • Choosing the appropriate medical tourism facility is the most important part of the medical travel process. There are many factors to consider, but most important is the quality of care and reputation of the institution.

  • Use of technologically advanced diagnostic equipments and excellent infrastructure of the Hospitals makes India a popular destination for tourists interested in medical tourism in India. The vast majority of these hospitals are in the process of applying for JCI Accreditation as well. 

  • India’s amazing diversity offers you everything you could ever want in a holiday. From the moment you set your foot in India you are greeted by a graceful namaste, a gesture that denotes both welcome and respect, you are on the way to most rewarding experiences of your life. 

At any part of the year India can offer you a dazzling array of destinations and experiences. Always warm and inviting, India is a place of infinite variety - one that favors you with a different facet of its fascination every time you come on a visit.

To get free no obligation Quote For Urology Surgery in India:
 Go to the Enquiry Form 
Phone Numbers Reach Us-
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
UK : +44-2081332571
Canada & USA : +1-4155992537


Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:

FAQ - Urology Surgeons In India

book-appointment-tour2india4health
  1. What is urology?

Urology is a medical speciality concerned with conditions and diseases of the genital and urinary tract in men, women and children. Urologists also diagnose and treat disorders of the male reproductive system.

  1. What training do urologists have?

Urologists are medical doctors who have completed four years of medical school and at least two years of general surgical training, followed by four years of speciality training in urologic surgery.

  1. How many times a day does a healthy person urinate?

Urination frequency varies widely, but most healthy people use the bathroom four to eight times a day. More frequent urination or waking up at night to go to the bathroom may signal a health problem or simply that you're drinking too much before or at bedtime.

  1. When should I see a doctor for incontinence?

Generally, it's a good idea to call your doctor or schedule an appointment if you:

  • Have a sudden onset of incontinence.
  • Find that incontinence is interfering with your quality of life.
  • Are wearing a urine absorption pad because of frequent accidents.
  1. What can I do to maintain good urologic health?

The best way to avoid urological problems is to maintain good overall health habits, including exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding tobacco, excessive alcohol and caffeine. You should also avoid foods or substances that remove water from the body, known as diuretics.

  1. Is incontinence more of a problem for women than men?

Not necessarily, although urinary incontinence occurs about twice as often in women than in men. Pregnancy, childbirth, menopause and female anatomy account for the difference. About one third of the 12 million people who suffer from incontinence in the United States are men. Male incontinence is often associated with prostate problems or treatments.

  1. What increases a woman's risk of incontinence?

Often it's a combination of factors, such as having given birth multiple times, age, obesity and smoking. Other factors include:

      • Chronic bladder infections

      • Hysterectomy

      • Diabetes

      • Lower estrogen levels after menopause

      • Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease

      • Multiple sclerosis

      • While age can be a contributor, no one should accept incontinence as an inevitability of growing older

      • Stroke or spinal cord injury

  1. What increases the risk of incontinence in men?

Most men have decreased bladder capacity as they age, naturally increasing the risk of incontinence to some degree. But incontinence in men may be related to a number of health conditions or medical treatments. It also can be caused by lifestyle or family history. Other contributors can be smoking, obesity, a high consumption of alcohol and caffeinated and carbonated drinks, and injury to the bladder. Just as in women, neurological conditions such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease can play a role.

  1. What is an urodynamic test?

o Urodynamics refers to the mechanisms of your urinary tract. Urodynamic testing is an analysis of how well the bladder, urethra and muscles (sphincters) function to control voiding, or the elimination of urine. These tests help urologists treat problems with storing urine or voiding.

 

ABOUT INDIA

Located in South Asia, bordered by Pakistan, Nepal, China and Bangladesh, India is South Asia's largest, sovereign, democratic republic. India has an edge over other countries when it comes to offering comprehensive, cost-effective and timely medical care: it also offers an exotic, adventure-filled or cultural -if you wish array of destinations to discover and revel in for the travelers. Indian cities like Mumbai, Hyderabad, Goa, Bangalore, Nagpur, Kerala, Delhi, Pune, Jaipur, Chennai, Gurgaon, and Chandigarh offers best medical tourism service. 

  • Mumbai - Formerly known as Bombay, is the commercial & a financial capital city of India. Mumbai is famous for many things, including its thriving Bollywood film industry, teeming bazaars, colonial-style buildings, Art Deco structures and a superb choice of restaurants, often been rated as the dining capital of India. The tourist district of Colaba in Mumbai is a great place to start exploring this great city.

  • Hyderabad – Hyderabad city is a great place to visit in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The place has witnessed a continuous growth for last many years. Hyderabad has become a tourist hotspot following ever increasing number of tourists during the past few years. Hyderabad has a well-founded reputation as one of the safest cities in the world.

  • Goa - The country's smallest state and famed for its colonial Portuguese and Catholic past, most tourists visit Goa for its endless selection of sandy beaches and coastal attractions. Standing proudly next to the Arabian Sea, Goa is a particularly compact state and often feels like a large town, being easy to travel. Around Goa, tourists will soon realize that the state has much more to offer than simply stunning beaches, fishing, water scooters, windsurfing and scuba diving. 

  • Bangalore - Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder and if you want to see one of the most beautiful places in India then Bangalore is the word for it. Bangalore has earned sobriquets like 'Silicon Valley of India', 'Pub Capital of India', and 'City of Gardens'. Pleasant climate with colorful gardens with lakes and glittering nightlife, Bangalore has made its own attraction for travelers as one of the most charming cities in India,

  • Nagpur - Nagpur is the largest city in central India, but with its friendly atmosphere and dependable transportation, you’ll instantly feel at home. The city of Nagpur has a well-built infrastructure, is a clean and affluent city which makes a good jumping-off point for a series of trips into the far eastern corner of Maharashtra..

  • Kerala - Welcome to Kerala, state in India's southern tip and a state known as God's Own Country. Kerala is one of the ten 'Paradises Found' by the National Geographic Traveler, for its diverse geography and overwhelming greenery. It is a land much acclaimed for the contemporary nature of its cultural ethos, and much appreciated for the soothing, rejuvenating paradise that it is. 

  • Delhi - Delhi, the capital of India is situated in the northern part of the country. Apart from being the capital of India, Delhi is also the travel hub of northern India. It serves as an excellent base for visiting the colorful state of Rajasthan, and Agra, the city of the Taj Mahal, is less than three hours away. Discover the many tales behind Delhi’s ancient, bewitching existence. Feel the excitement of stepping foot on a piece of the world’s oldest land!

  • Pune - Pune is the eighth largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The city derives its name from Punya Nagari, which means 'the city of virtuous deeds.'Pune or the 'Queen of Deccan' is known for its educational, research and development institutions. This beautiful city has many exotic locales attracting innumerable tourists.

  • Jaipur – Jaipur is located in India and attracts a flurry of tourists from all over the world. Sited within eastern Rajasthan, North India, the city of Jaipur is famed for its hilltop fortresses, magnificent royal palaces and historic pink-painted sandstone architecture, earning it the affectionate nickname of the 'Pink City'. 

  • Chennai – Chennai, formerly known as Madras is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is famous for its culture and tradition. Chennai hosts a large cultural event, which includes performances by hundreds of artists. The city has a vibrant theatre scene and is an important centre for the Bharatanatyam, a classical dance form. 

  • Gurgaon – It is one of the four important satellite cities of the National Capital Region and is often referred to as the 'Millennium City.' Gurgaon has recently emerged as the latest hub for Medical Tourism. Apart from being IT hub and a favorite haunt for MNC offices, the city has a number of world class hospitals that not only treat Indian citizens but also people from outside.

  • Chandigarh - Chandigarh is a rare epitome of modernization co-existing with nature's preservation. It is here that the trees and plants are as much a part of the construction plans as the buildings and the roads. India’s first planned city, Chandigarh is a rich, prosperous, spic and span, green city rightly called “THE CITY BEAUTIFUL”.

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

Click icon to Download Document
About India Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document   Destinations in India Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document
Indian Embassy List Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document   Medical Tourism FAQ Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document
Visa For India Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document        
 

Related Articles:

 
 
 

 

   

surgery India, cost surgery India, best surgery India
benefits surgery India, advantages surgery India, surgery benefits India
Watch Tour2india4health Patients Videos on YoutubeFollow Tour2india4health on TwitterConnect with Tour2india4health on Linkedin
Tour2india4health - PinterestTour2india4health -  Wordpress BlogTour2india4health - Google Plus
Connect with Tour2india4health on FacebookConnect with Tour2india4health on StumbleuponConnect with Tour2india4health on Tumblr
benefits surgery India, advantages surgery India, surgery benefits India
Tour2india4health Medical Procedures
Tour2india4health Articles
Tour2india4health Literature
Tour2india4health Press Releases
Tour2india4health Arabic Language
Tour2india4health International Patient Videos
Tour2india4health International Patient Experiences
Connect with Tour2india4health on Facebook
Tour2india4Health - International Patient Videos
Tour2india4Health - Cosmetic Surgery Before After Gallery
Tour2india4Health - Cosmetic Surgery Testimonials
Tour2india4Health - Surgery Videos
Tour2india4Health - Medical Tourism Ads
Tour2india4Health - Medical Tourism Articles
Tour2india4Health - Medical Conditions
 
Associated Hospitals in India
 

Tour Options   |    Travel Kit   |    Step by Step Guide   |    Contact Us   |    Security   |    Disclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |    Sitemap
 
Copyright © 2016 www.tour2india4health.com All Rights Reserved.