Cardiac surgery is a surgery on the heart performed by cardiac surgeons. It is generally performed to treat the complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, coronary artery bypass grafting), correct congenital heart disease, or treat valvular heart disease caused by various causes including endocarditis. It also includes heart transplantation.
Purpose of Cardiac surgery:
The various types of Cardiac Surgeries performed may be used to address the following issues:
Repair or replace the valves that control blood flow through the heart's chambers
Bypass or widen blocked or narrowed arteries to the heart
Repair aneurysms, or bulges in the aorta, which can be deadly if they burst
Implant devices to regulate heart rhythms
Destroy small amounts of tissue that disturb electrical flow through the heart
Make channels in the heart muscle to allow blood from a heart chamber directly into the heart muscle
Boost the heart's pumping power with muscles taken from the back or abdomen
Replace the damaged heart with a heart from a donor
Conditions Treated with Cardiac Surgery:
Congenital Heart Defects
Coronary Heart Disease
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
Heart Valve Diseases
High Blood Pressure / Hypertension
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Types of Cardiac Surgery:
The various types of cardiac surgery, which are used to fix different types of heart problems:
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most common type of heart surgery. This surgery is used for people who have severe coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease. In CHD, a fatty material called plaque builds up inside your coronary (heart) arteries. Plaque narrows the arteries and limits blood flow to your heart muscle. CHD can cause angina, shortness of breath, and heart attack. During CABG, a surgeon takes a vein or an artery from your chest, leg, or another part of your body and connects, or grafts, it to the blocked artery. The grafted artery bypasses (that is, goes around) the blockage. This allows oxygen-rich blood to reach the heart muscle. Surgeons can bypass multiple blocked coronary arteries during one surgery.
Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: or TLR, is a surgery used to treat angina when no other treatments work. For example, if you've already had one CABG procedure and can't have another one, TLR may be an option. This type of heart surgery isn't common. During TLR, a surgeon uses lasers to make channels in the heart muscle. These channels allow oxygen-rich blood to flow from a heart chamber directly into the heart muscle.
Heart Valve Repair or Replacement: is done to fix leaflets that don't open as wide as they should. This can happen if they become thick or stiff or fuse together. As a result, not enough blood flows through the valve into the artery. It is also is done to fix leaflets that don't close tightly. If the leaflets don't close tightly, blood can leak backward into the heart chambers, rather than only moving forward into the arteries as it should. To fix these problems, surgeons either repair the valve or replace it. Replacement valves are taken from animals or made from human tissue or man-made materials. To repair a mitral or pulmonary valve that's too narrow, a surgeon will insert a catheter through a large blood vessel and guide it to the heart. This procedure is less invasive than open-heart surgery.
Arrhythmia Treatment: An arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. Most of them are harmless, but some can be serious or even life threatening. When the heart rate is abnormal, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood to the body. Lack of blood flow can damage the brain, heart, and other organs. Arrhythmias usually are treated with medicine first. If medicine doesn't work well enough, you may need surgery. This surgery is done with a pacemaker who sends electrical signals through the wires to control your heart rhythm. In this operation, the surgeon makes new paths for the heart's electrical signals to travel through. This type of surgery is used to treat atrial fibrillation, the most common type of serious arrhythmia. Simpler, less invasive procedures also are used to treat atrial fibrillation.
Aneurysm Repair: An aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery or the heart muscle. This bulge happens when the wall weakens. Pressure from blood moving through the artery or heart causes the weak area to bulge. Over time, an aneurysm can grow and burst, causing dangerous, often fatal bleeding inside the body. Aneurysms in the heart most often occur in the heart's lower left chamber (the left ventricle). Repairing an aneurysm involves surgery to replace the weak section of the artery or heart wall with a patch or graft.
Heart Transplant: A heart transplant is surgery to remove a person's diseased heart and replace it with a healthy heart from a deceased donor. Your doctor may recommend a heart transplant if your heart is so damaged or weak that it can't pump enough blood to meet your body's needs. This condition is called heart failure. This type of surgery is a life-saving measure that's used when medical treatment and less drastic surgery have failed. Patients on the waiting list for a donor heart receive ongoing treatment for heart failure and other medical conditions.
Ventricular Assist Devices: VADs are mechanical pumps that are used to support heart function and blood flow in people who have weakened hearts. Your doctor may recommend a VAD if you have heart failure or if you're waiting for a heart transplant. You can use a VAD for a short time or for months or years, depending on your situation. Depending on a patient's heart problem, general health, and other factors, he or she can have open-heart surgery or minimally invasive heart surgery.
Open-Heart Surgery: Open-heart surgery is any kind of surgery in which a surgeon makes a large incision (cut) in the chest to open the rib cage and operate on the heart. "Open" refers to the chest, not the heart. Depending on the type of surgery, the surgeon also may open the heart. Open-heart surgery is used to bypass blocked arteries in the heart, repair or replace heart valves, treat atrial fibrillation, and do heart transplants. Increasing numbers of surgeons have started to use off-pump, or beating heart, surgery to do CABG. This approach is like traditional open-heart surgery, but surgeons don't use a heart-lung bypass machine. Off-pump heart surgery isn't right for all patients.
Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery: For minimally invasive heart surgery, a surgeon makes small incisions in the side of the chest between the ribs. A heart-lung bypass machine sometimes is used for some types of minimally invasive heart surgery. Minimally invasive heart surgery is used for some CABG and maze procedures. It's also used to repair or replace heart valves and insert pacemakers or ICDs. One type of minimally invasive heart surgery that's still being developed is robotic-assisted surgery. For this surgery, a surgeon uses a computer to control surgical tools on thin robotic arms. The tools are inserted through small incisions in the chest. This allows the surgeon to do complex and highly precise surgery. The surgeon always is in total control of the robotic arms; they don't move on their own.
Candidate for Cardiac Surgery:
Cardiac surgery is used to treat people who have certain heart diseases and conditions. If other treatments—such as lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical procedures—haven't worked or can't be used, heart surgery may be an option. Cardiac surgery is used to treat heart failure and coronary heart disease. It's also used to fix heart valves that don't work right, to control heart rhythms, and to replace a damaged heart with a healthy one.
Preparing for Cardiac Surgery:
There are many types of Cardiac Surgery. The type you need depends on your situation. One person's experience before surgery can be very different from another's. Some people carefully plan their surgeries with their doctors. They know exactly when and how their surgeries will happen. Other people need emergency heart surgery. Others are diagnosed with blocked coronary arteries and are admitted to the hospital right away for surgery as soon as possible. If you're having a planned surgery, you may be admitted to the hospital the afternoon or morning before your surgery. Your doctors and others on your health care team will meet with you to explain what will happen. They'll give you instructions on how to prepare for the surgery. You also may need to have some tests, such as an EKG (electrocardiogram), chest x ray, or blood tests. An intravenous (IV) line will be placed into a blood vessel in your arm or chest to give you fluids and medicines. Hair near the incision site may be shaved. Your skin may be washed with special soap to reduce the risk of infection.
Just before the surgery, you'll be moved to the operating room. You'll be given medicine so that you fall asleep and feel no pain during the surgery.
After Cardiac Surgery: Depending on the type of heart surgery, you may spend a day or more in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU). You may have an intravenous (IV) needle inserted in a blood vessel in your arm or chest to give you fluids until you're ready to drink on your own. The entire time you're at the hospital, doctors and nurses will closely watch your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, vital signs, and incision site(s). Your recovery at home will depend on what kind of heart problem and surgery you had. Your doctor will give you specific instructions about how to:
Care for your healing incisions
Recognize signs of infection or other complications
Cope with after-effects of surgery
Recovery time varies for different types of heart surgery. Full recovery from traditional open-heart CABG may take 6 to 12 weeks or more. Less recovery time is needed for off-pump heart surgery and minimally invasive heart surgery. Your doctor will let you know when you can go back to your daily activities, such as working, driving, and physical activity.
The Cost of Cardiac Surgery in India:
India has no parallels in healthcare when it comes to cost effective treatments in comparison with other countries. Significant cost differences exist among US and other developed nations. That gives India a certain edge when it comes to reasonable medical treatments. No matter what procedure you undergo, you are sure to save 75% to 95% of healthcare costs. The following table would further enhance the cost difference, which as under:
Open Heart Surgery
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Heart Valve Replacement
Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery
Best Cardiac Surgeons in India:
Cardiac surgeons working in India are not only highly qualified but also have huge experience of conducting thousands of successful cardiac procedures. The operations and treatments that cardiac specialists offer include heart transplant, heart valve replacement and repair, minimally invasive heart surgery.
Indian Cardiac surgeons have made major contributions in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, including cardiac imaging, valve repair and replacement, bypass surgery, pediatric procedures, device placement and many more. Cardiac surgeons of India are known world wide for their specialized care in virtually all aspects of cardiology.
The Indian cardiac surgeons share a common purpose; provide each and every patient with the very best in cardiac care from prevention, diagnosis to treatment/surgery. They use state-of-the-art equipment and the latest procedures available in cardiac medicine. Many of these surgeons have gained specialization within the field of cardiology proving their leadership and ability over other cardiac surgeons of other nations.
Qualifications for a Cardiac Surgeons in India are:
MS in General Surgery
MCH in Cardiac Surgery
DNB/FRCS/MRCS from International Colleges and Hospitals
International Fellowship and Training Programs
Publications and Paper Presentations in Reputed Scientific and Medical Journals
Wide Clinical Experience
Top Cardiac Surgery Hospitals in India:
Private Indian Cardiac hospitals are now at the same technological level as hospitals in Europe and America. At various Cardiac Hospitals in India, one will find experienced medical staff giving the patients advanced clinical care that no other cardiac hospitals in the Western country will provide. Facilities provided by the top cardiac hospitals in India are;
Fully equiped ICU, CCU and recovery rooms
Availability of non-invasive investigations like ECG, Echocardiography, Doppler, TMT, Stress echo and Holter test
Support of latest technology
Cath lab and CTVS Operation Theatre
These hospitals offers a wide range of services covering all aspects of cardiac care like interventional cardiology, pediatric cardiology, surgeries for coronary artery bypass, correction of congenital anomalies of the heart, etc. You can find top and world renowned Cardiac surgery hospitals at these cities;
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Post-surgical continued Consulting Support via Email or live interaction with treating Doctor / Medical Specialist.
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