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    Paediatric Surgery:

Surgery for cancerous and noncancerous tumors:

The uterus, or womb, is part of the female reproductive system. Often described as pear-shaped, it is located in the lower abdomen. The uterus lies in close proximity to the ovaries, where unfertilized eggs are stored. During ovulation the eggs travel down the fallopian tubes to the uterus. Fertilized eggs implant and grow in the uterus.

Uterine Fibroids: Non-Cancerous Tumors of the Uterus

Uterine fibroid tumors are the most common type of neoplasm in the female reproductive system (neoplasm is simply another word for tumor). This particular type of neoplasm develops from the smooth muscle tissues of the womb. They are extremely common in women: 20 to 25 percent of women develop uterine fibroid tumors. Most fibroids never cause symptoms and do not require removal. Other names for fibroids are leiomyomas, leiomyomata, fibromyomas, and myomas.

Is a Fibroid Cancerous?

Uterine fibroid tumors are benign growths, and are only very rarely malignant. Less than one percent develop into uterine cancer. These very rare occurrences generally occur in women during menopause. The vast majority of leiomyomas are not life threatening, although some can cause health complications.

Types of Uterine Fibroid Tumors

A uterine fibroid develops from a single cell in the uterus muscle. The neoplasm may be less than a quarter of an inch long; many measure up to six inches; and a rare few grow as large as ten inches in diameter.

Hormones and Menopause

The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but hormones are believed to play an important role. The tumors tend to develop faster during the reproductive years, when estrogen and other female hormones are at their highest levels. After menopause, leiomyomas often diminish in size.

Pregnancy Complications

Most leiomyomas do not interfere with pregnancy, but size and location can cause complications. The extra blood flow to the womb during pregnancy can stimulate tumor growth. Occasionally, caesarean sections may be required to counteract complications. Possible complications include miscarriage, premature contractions, and premature labor.

Bone marrow transplant for cancer

Blood and marrow transplants (BMT) are used to treat conditions such as acute and chronic leukemia, lymphomas and some solid tumors such as breast cancer. During a BMT, healthy stems cells (the source of all blood cells) are injected into the recipient, where they can develop into the various cell types. If the stems cells are taken from bone marrow, the procedure is a bone marrow transplant. If they are taken from blood, it is called peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Seek help from: hematologists or oncologists.

Bowel surgery

Surgery in the small or large intestines can treat bleeding, injury, disease, obstructions or cancer. Doctors can manipulate, repair, remove and re-attach to treat diseases or injuries. Seek help from: general surgeons, colon and rectal surgeons or gastroenterologists.

Brain surgery or other nerve procedures

Brain surgery is a complex procedure that may be required to treat a blood clot, tumor, abscess, head injury, stroke, to stop bleeding, relieve pressure on the brain or repair damaged brain tissue. Seek help from: neurosurgeons, neurologists or physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists.

Ears, nose, throat surgery, including major reconstruction

Surgery to the head or neck region can correct birth defects or treat injury, infection, tumors and disease. It can also improve function or looks. Seek help from: ear, nose and throat doctors (otolaryngologists), plastic surgeons, general surgeons, or pediatric surgeons.

Lung or chest surgery

Surgery on the lung and the structures around it can treat infection, injury or, most commonly, lung cancer. Operations may remove part of a lobe, an entire lobe, or may involve surgery on the airways or the cavity surrounding the lung. New techniques using a small instrument with a camera are making it easier on patients. Seek help from: thoracic surgeons

Mastectomy (surgical removal of part or the entire breast) or similar procedures

Mastectomy is the surgery to remove an entire breast. A lumpectomy involves removing only part of the breast. Both are usually performed to treat breast cancer and other serious breast disease such as abscesses. Seek help from: general surgeons, plastic surgeons or oncologists.

Prostate resection (surgical removal of the prostate or prostatectomy)

Prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the prostate gland through an incision made in the abdomen, usually to treat prostate cancer. Seek help from: urologists.

Skin Problems requiring Surgery or Grafting

Certain skin problems leave people with large areas of the body surface exposed or covered with blisters, scales or scabs. Skin infections or surgical removal of skin cancers may also leave areas of the body exposed. Wound surgery (debridement) to remove diseased tissue followed by skin grafts may be the best option to help in healing. Seek help from: dermatologists, plastic surgeons or general surgeons.

Splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen) and other similar surgeries

The spleen helps the body fight bacterial infections and makes and stores important blood cells. Removing the spleen (splenectomy) may be required if there is injury to the organ, if blood flow to the spleen is interrupted by blood clots, to study the spread of cancer as in Hodgkin's lymphoma or if the spleen becomes hyperactive as in idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), hemolytic anemia or leukemia. Seek help from: general surgeons.

Stomach or esophagus (food pipe) surgery

Surgery on the stomach, esophagus or the duodenum (the first part of the intestines) can help stop internal bleeding or treat an ulcer, injury, disease or cancer. Doctors may need to repair, remove or re-attach these organs. Seek help from: general surgeons or gastroenterologists.

Surgery for cancer of cervix, uterus or ovary or other similar surgeries

Treatment for cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and other female reproductive cancers often involves removing the involved organ and sometimes the surrounding tissue and lymph nodes. For some cancers, less invasive procedures can be done to treat the cancer without removing the entire organ. Seek help from: OB/GYNs or gynecologic oncologists.

Surgery for kidney or bladder cancer

Cancer can affect any part of the urinary tract. Surgery is usually the best chance for a cure. An operation may repair or remove part of the kidney, bladder or urinary tract. It may help diagnose or treat the cancer or just relieve the symptoms if the cancer is too far advanced. Seek help from: urologists or oncologists.

Surgery on the bones and joints of hip, leg or ankle

Procedures on the hip, knee, thigh, leg or foot can treat injuries, fractures, tumor, arthritis, persistent infection or problems medicines can't cure. Doctors can remove or repair diseased areas or use fix fractures by inserting steel screws, steel plates and rods. Seek help from: orthopedic surgeons.

Surgery on the eye due to injury, tumor or birth defects

Certain eye problems require surgery that is done in the hospital. These include cancer in the eye, other growths or tumors, deep infections or injuries that cause bleeding into the eye. Seek help from: ophthalmologists.

Surgery on the male reproductive organs

Penis surgery might repair a narrowing of the urethra (what takes urine outside the body), a fistula (abnormal opening in the urethra), an injury or a birth defect. The most common penis operation is circumcision to remove the foreskin. Surgery on the testes usually treats cancer, infection or developmental defects. Procedures on the scrotum often involve removing excessive fluid in the sac (hydrocele) or other problems related to infection, injury or cancer. Seek help from: urologists.

Surgery on the pancreas, liver or bile ducts

Liver or pancreas surgery may involve repairing or removing part or all of the diseased or injured organs. Sometimes, blockage or increased pressure in the arteries around the pancreas leads to liver failure, and shunt procedures are performed to relieve this obstruction. Seek help from: specially trained surgeons or general surgeons.

Thyroid, pituitary or adrenal surgery or other similar surgeries

Thyroid, pituitary and adrenals are glands that produce hormones that help regulate the body's metabolism. Surgery may be required on them to remove cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, to remove nodules that produce too much hormone or for enlarged glands that press against adjacent structures. Seek help from: endocrinologists, general surgeons, neurosurgeons or ear, nose and throat doctors (otolaryngologists).

Wound surgery (debridement) with skin grafting

Wound surgery (debridement) removes dead or foreign tissue from a wound to expose healthy tissue and hasten healing. Some cases require skin grafts to prevent further infection and to stimulate healing. Seek help from: plastic surgeons or general surgeons.


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