Free Consultations

Top Hospitals in India

Apollo Hospital Apollo Hospital

Fortis Hospital Fortis Hospital

Artemis Hospital Artemis Hospital

Max Hospital Max Hospital

Asia Columbia Group of Hospitals
Asia Columbia Group of Hospitals

Medanta Hospital Medanta Hospital

Asian Heart Institute
Asian Heart Institute

Wockhardt Hospital
Wockhardt Hospital

Hiranandani Hospital
Hiranandani Hospital

Sir Ganga Ram Hospital
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital

Jaslok Hospital Jaslok Hospital

Lilavati Hospital Lilavati Hospital

Kokilaben Hospital
Kokilaben Hospital

Narayana Hrudayalaya
Narayana Hrudayalaya

Global Hospitals Global Hospitals

Jupiter Hospital Jupiter Hospital

Cystoscopy & Ureteroscopy Surgery in India

CystoscopyA ureteral stent is a thin, flexible tube threaded into the ureter to help urine drain from the kidney to the bladder or to an external collection system.


Urine is normally carried from the kidneys to the bladder via a pair of long, narrow tubes called ureters (each kidney is connected to one ureter). A ureter may become obstructed as a result of a number of conditions including kidney stones, tumors, blood clots, postsurgical swelling, or infection. A ureteral stent is placed in the ureter to restore the flow of urine to the bladder. Ureteral stents may be used in patients with active kidney infection or with diseased bladders (e.g., as a result of cancer or radiation therapy). Alternatively, ureteral stents may be used during or after urinary tract surgical procedures to provide a mold around which healing can occur, to divert the urinary flow away from areas of leakage, to manipulate kidney stones or prevent stone migration prior to treatment, or to make the ureters more easily identifiable during difficult surgical procedures. The stent may remain in place on a short-term (days to weeks) or long-term (weeks to months) basis.


Chronic blockage of a ureter affects approximately five individuals out of every 1,000; acute blockage affects one out of every 1,000. Bilateral obstruction (blockage to both ureters) is more rare; chronic blockage affects one individual per 1,000 people, and acute blockage affects five per 10,000.


The size, shape, and material of the ureteral stent to be used depends on the patient's anatomy and the reason why the stent is required. Most stents are 5–12 inches (12–30 cm) in length, and have a diameter of 0.06–0.2 inches (1.5–6 mm). One or both ends of the stent may be coiled (called a pigtail stent) to prevent it from moving out of place; an open-ended stent is better suited for patients who require temporary drainage. In some instances, one end of the stent has a thread attached to it that extends through the bladder and urethra to the outside of the body; this aids in stent removal. The stent material must be flexible, durable, non-reactive, and radiopaque (visible on an x ray).

The patient is usually placed under general anesthesia for stent insertion; this ensures the physician that the patient will remain relaxed and will not move during the procedure. A cystoscope (a thin, telescope-like instrument) is inserted into the urethra to the bladder, and the opening to the ureter to be stented is identified. In some instances, a guide wire is inserted into the ureter under the aid of a fluoroscope (an imaging device that uses x rays to visualize structures on a fluorescent screen). The guide wire provides a path for the placement of the stent, which is advanced over the wire. Once the stent is in place, the guide wire and cystoscope are removed. Patients who fail this method of ureteral stenting may have the stent placed percutaneously (through the skin), into the kidney, and subsequently into the ureter.

A stent that has an attached thread may be pulled out by a physician in an office setting. Cystoscopy may also be used to remove a stent.


A number of different technologies aid in the diagnosis of ureteral obstruction. These include:

  • cystoscopy (a procedure in which a thin, tubular instrument is used to visualize the interior of the bladder)
  • ultrasonography (an imaging technique that uses high-frequency sounds waves to visualize structures inside the body)
  • computed tomography (an imaging technique that uses x rays to produce two-dimensional cross-sections on a viewing screen)
  • pyelography (x rays taken of the urinary tract after a contrast dye has been injected into a vein or into the kidney, ureter, or bladder)
  • Prior to ureteral stenting, the procedure should be thoroughly explained by a medical professional. No food or drink is permitted after midnight the night before surgery. The patient wears a hospital gown during the procedure. If the stent insertion is performed with the aid of a cystoscope, the patient will assume a position that is typically used in a gynecological exam (lying on the back, with the legs flexed and supported by stirrups).


Stents must be periodically replaced to prevent fractures within the catheter wall or build-up of encrustation. Stent replacement is recommended approximately every six months; more often in patients who form stones.


Complications associated with ureteral stenting include:

  • bleeding (usually minor and easily treated, but occasionally requiring transfusion)
  • catheter migration or dislodgement (may require readjustment)
  • coiling of the stent within the ureter (may cause lower abdominal pain or flank pain on urination, urinary frequency, or blood in the urine)
  • introduction or worsening of infection
  • penetration of adjacent organs (e.g., bowel, gallbladder, or lungs)

Normal results

Normally, a ureteral stent re-establishes the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder. Postoperative urine flow will be monitored to ensure the stent has not been dislodged or obstructed.

Morbidity and mortality rates

Serious complications occur in approximately 4% of patients undergoing ureteral stenting, with minor complications in another 10%.


If a ureter is obstructed and ureteral stenting is not possible, a nephrostomy may be performed. During this procedure, a tube is placed through the skin on the patient's back, into the area of the kidney that collects urine. The tube may be connected to an external drainage bag. In other cases, the tube is connected directly from the kidney to the bladder.

Cystoscopy & Ureteroscopy Surgery in India is available in following cities

Mumbai Hyderabad Kerala
Delhi Pune Goa
Bangalore Nagpur Jaipur
Chennai Gurgaon Chandigarh

To get free no obligation Quote For Cystoscopy & Ureteroscopy Surgery in India
Go to the Enquiry Form
Phone Numbers Reach Us
India & International : +91-9860755000 / +91-9371136499
UK : +44-2081332571
Canada & USA : +1-4155992537

Below are the downloadable links that will help you to plan your medical trip to India in a more organized and better way. Attached word and pdf files gives information that will help you to know India more and make your trip to India easy and memorable one.

Click icon to Download Document

About India Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document   Destinations in India Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document
Indian Embassy List Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document   Medical Tourism FAQ Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document
Visa For India Click Here to Download Word Document Click Here to Download PDF Document    

Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery India,Cost Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery,Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy India,Low Cost Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Mumbai India,Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery Hospital Mumbai,Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Delhi Hospital,Cost Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery Mumbai,Delhi-India,Low Cost Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery Hospital,Affordable Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Hospital Mumbai,Delhi,Cost Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery Hospital Delhi,Cost Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery Mumbai,Affordable Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Hospital Bangalore,Pune, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Hyderabad,Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery Ahmedabad,Cost Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Chennai,Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Hospital Pune,Low Cost Cystoscopy,Ureteroscopy Surgery Hyderabad

medical tourism company in india